“Black Lives Matter” Constructing a New Civil Rights and Black Freedom Movement


1. On the transitory nature of new social media, see R. Kelley Garrett, “Protest in an Information Society,” Information, Communication, & Society (Vol. 9, No. 2, April 2006), 202-24. On the development of these new organizations and networks, see Gene Demby, “The Birth of a New Civil Rights Movement,” Politico, Dec. 31, 2014.

2. Marcia Chatelain, “Black Lives Matter: An Online Roundtable with Alicia Garza, Dante Barry, and Darsheel Kaur,” Dissent, Jan. 19, 2015.

3. Chatelain.

4. Alicia Garza, “A History of the #BlackLivesMatter Movement,” The Feminist Wire, Oct. 7, 2014.

5. Garza.

6. Chatelain.

7. Barbara Ransby, Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2003), 259, 238, 245. For the most inclusive and insightful study of SNCC, see Wesley C. Hogan, Many Minds, One Heart: SNCC’s Dream for a New America (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2007).

8. Demby.

9. Demby.

10. Chatelain. On movement centers as key resources for the long civil rights movement, see Aldon D. Morris, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement (Free Press, 1984).

11. Charles M. Blow, “Beyond ‘Black Lives Matter,’” International New York Times, Feb. 9, 2015.

12. Marie Gottschalk, Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics (Princeton U.P., 2014).

13. Robin D. G. Kelley, “Why We Won’t Wait,” CounterPunch, Nov. 25, 2014.

14. Garza.

15. George Yancy and Judith Butler, “What’s Wrong with ‘All Lives Matter,’” New York Times, Jan. 12, 2015.

16. Baldwin, The Fire Next Time (Dell, 1963), 124-25.

17. Cited in Taylor Branch, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-1965 (Touchstone, 1999), 193.