A Commune in Rojava?

by

1. Part of this article is based on a longer piece, “Stalinist caterpillar into libertarian butterfly? The evolving ideology of the PKK.”

2. Martin van Bruinessen, “Between Guerrilla War and Political Murder: The Workers’ Party of Kurdistan,” Middle East Report (No. 153, July-August 1988), 40-42+44-46+50.

3. PKK, Programm (Köln: 1984).

4. Nikolas Brauns and Brigitte Kiechle, PKK. Perspektiven des kurdischen Freiheitkampfe : Zwischen Selbsbestimmung, EU und Islam (Stuttgart: 2010), 57.

5. Abdullah Öcalan, Prison Writings. The PKK and the Kurdish question in the 21st century (London: 2011), 21, 42.

6. Olivier Grojean, “The production of the new man within the PKK,” European Journal of Turkish Studies (2012), 4.

7. Brauns & Kiechle, PKK, 77.

8. Handan Çağlayan, “‘From Kawa the Blacksmith to Ishtar the Goddess: Gender Constructions in Ideological-Political Discourses of the Kurdish Movement in Post-1980 Turkey,” European Journal of Turkish Studies (No. 14, 2012), 2.

9. Abdullah Öcalan, “Jineolojî als Wissenschaft der Frau,” Einleitende Worte der Herausgeberin.

10. Çağlayan, “From Kawa the Blacksmith to Ishtar the Goddess,” 2.

11. Brauns & Kiechle, PKK, 247.

12. Ahmet Hamdi Akkaya and Joost Jongerden, “Reassembling the political: the PKK and the project of radical democracy,” European Journal of Turkish Studies (2012), 6.

13. Brauns & Kiechle, PKK, 82.

14. Abdullah Öcalan, The third domain. Reconstructing liberation. Extracts from the submissions to the ECHR (London: 2003), 54, 56.

15. Abdullah Öcalan, The Declaration of Democratic Confederalism (2005).

16. Aysegul Aydin and Cem Emrence, Zones of Rebellion. Kurdish Insurgents and the Turkish State (Ithaca: 2015), 40. Alevism is a branch of Shia Islam, while the Turkish state favors a kind of Sunni Islam. Alevism should not be confused with Alawism, another branch of Shia Islam.

17. Abdullah Öcalan, Declaration on the Democratic Solution of the Kurdish Question (London: 1999), 59.

18. Abdullah Öcalan, Prison Writings, 71.

19. Öcalan, Prison Writings, 91.

20. Ismail Küpeli (ed.), Kampf um Kobanê. Kampf um die Zukunft des Nahen Ostens (Műnster: 2015), 34.

21. Quoted in RSL 252

22. Öcalan, Prison Writings, 60.

23. Amnesty International, We had nowhere to go”: Forced displacement and demolitions in Northern Syria (London: 2015).

24. Thomas Schmidinger, Krieg und Revolution in Syrisch-Kurdistan. Analysen und Stimmen aus Rojava (Vienna: 2014), 186.

25. Human Rights Watch, "Under Kurdish Rule: Abuses in PYD-run Enclaves of Syria" (2014).

26. Mutlu Çiviroğlu Kimdir, YPG General Commander Hemo on Syrian Democratic Force, US Weapons & Amnesty Report.