Crime, Incarceration, and the Left


1. Timothy Williams and Tanzina Vega, “A Plan to Cut Costs and Crime: End Hurdle to Job After Prison,” New York Times (Oct. 23, 2014).

2. University at Albany, Hindelang Criminal Justice Research Center, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, Table 2.1; Gallup Poll.

3. Bureau of Justice Statistics, here and here.

4. Bureau of Justice Statistics; Captive Genders.

5. “IRS Releases New Tax Gap Estimates; Compliance Rates Remain Statistically Unchanged From Previous Study,” IR-2012-4 (Jan. 6, 2012); Ted R. Miller, Mark A. Cohen, Brian Wiersema, Victim Costs and Consequences: A New Look (National Institute of Justice, 1996).

6. Paige St. John, “Prop. 47 Passes, Reducing Some Crime Penalties,” Los Angeles Times (Nov. 4, 2014).

7. Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Violent Victimization Committed by Strangers, 1993-2010.”

8. Pew Charitable Trusts, “One in 100 Behind Bars” (2008); NAACP, Criminal Justice Fact Sheet; The Pew Charitable Trusts, Collateral Costs: Incarceration’s Effect on Economic Mobility (2010).

9. Sara Wakefield and Christopher Uggen, “Incarceration and Stratification,” Annu. Rev. Sociol. (No. 36, 2010), 387–406.

10. Bruce Western, Punishment and Inequality in America (Russell Sage Foundation, 2006), p. 94.

11. The Sentencing Project, Felony Disenfranchisement: A Primer (2014).

12. Christopher Uggen and Jeff Manza, “Democratic Contraction? Political Consequences of Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States,” American Sociological Review (Vol. 67, Dec. 2002), 777-803.

13. Jeremy Travis, Bruce Western, and Steve Redburn, eds., The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences, (The National Academies Press, 2014).

14. Todd R. Clear, How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse (Oxford University Press, 2007).

15. Ruth Wilson Gilmore, “Globalisation and US prison growth: from military Keynesianism to post-Keynesian militarism,” Race and Class (vol. 40(2/3), 1998/1999), 171-188.

16. Jennifer Gonnerman, “Million-Dollar Blocks: The Neighborhood Costs of America’s Prison Boom,” Village Voice (11/9/2004).

17. Douglas S. Massey, et al., Climbing Mount Laurel: The Struggle for Affordable Housing and Social Mobility in an American Suburb (Princeton University Press, 2013).

18. Washington State Institute for Public Policy, “Nurse Family Partnership for Low-Income Families;” Washington State Institute for Public Policy, “Head Start;” Erin Jacobs & Bruce Western, “Report on the Evaluation of the ComALERT Prisoner Reentry Program.”

19. Paul Tullis, “Can Forgiveness Play a Role in Criminal Justice?” New York Times Magazine (Jan. 4, 2013).

20. “Is This Working?This American Life, (WBEZ, Oct. 17, 2014).

21. Wesley G. Skogan, et al., Evaluation of CeaseFire-Chicago (March 20, 2008).

22. WKTV News, “New Bill to Strengthen NYS Domestic Violence Laws,” Oct 25, 2012.

23. Victoria Law, “Against Carceral Feminism,” Jacobin (10/17/14).

24. Vera Institute of Justice, The Price of Prisons: What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers (2012).

25. Personal communication, Oct. 27, 2014.

26. Katherine Beckett, Making Crime Pay: Law and Order in Contemporary American Politics (Oxford University Press, 2000).

27. Justin Wolfers, “Perceptions Haven’t Caught Up to Decline in Crime,” New York Times (Sept. 16, 2014).