End of a Cycle and a New Beginning

by

1. Translated from French by Gabriel Ash.

2. Rai per una notte, March 25, 2010.

3. Gabriele Turi, “Quella cultura che soppravviverà al suo interprete,” La Repubblica, Oct. 16, 2010.

4. Zygmunt Bauman, Liquid times: living in an age of uncertainty (Oxford: Polity Press, 2007). 

5. Perry Anderson, “Italy. An invertebrate left. Italy’s Squandered Heritage,” London Review of Books, March 12, 2009.

6. The capitalized V refers to the 2007 inauguration of Beppe Grillo’s movement with the launch of the so-called vaffanculo day, literaly “fuck you” day, a day of anger against Italian politics. 

7. Sinistra Critica (Critical Left), The National Coordination Committee of Sinsitra Critica, “New Beginnings,” Aug. 29, 2013.

8. G. Caldiron, La destra plurale. Dalla preferenza nazionale alla tolleranza zero (Rome: Manifestolibri, 2001).

9.Silvio Berlusconi, “Il discorso della discesa in campo. Per il mio Paese,” Jan. 26, 1994.

10. Perry Anderson, “An entire order converted into what it was intended to end,” London Review of Books, Feb. 26, 2009.

11. Cf. here; see also Ilvo Diamanti, “‘Peggio di Berlusconi nessuno mai.’ Un Italiano su due boccia il ritorno,” La Repubblica, July 16, 2012.

12. Antonio Gibelli, Berlusconi passato alla storia. L’Italia nell’era della democrazia autoritaria (Rome: Donzelli, 2010).

13. Gianpasquale Santomassimo, “Marxismo e storia dal solido al liquido,” Passato e Presente, No. 72, 2007, p. 138.

14. Intervention of Filippo Focardi in the colloquium “Anti-Fascism in Question, 1922-1945: New Objects, New Debates,” held in Paris, June 2013.

15. See in this regard the work of the 7th Commission of the Italian Parliament, mentioned notably by G. Turi, cited in note 3. For the Lazio, see Consiglio regionale del Lazio, “Gruppo Alleanza nazionale-Mozione 9 novembre 2000,” in Edscuola.

16. Resolution 7-00163, approved by the 7th Commission of the Italian Parliament, Dec. 11, 2002.

17. Pier Paolo Poggi, Nazismo e revisionismo storico (Rome: Manifesto libri, 1997). 

18. Eric J. Hobsbawm, Age of Extremes. The Short Twentieh Century 1914-1991 (London: Abacus, 1997).

19. F. Biscione, Il sommerso della Repubblica. La democrazia italiana e la crisi dell’antifascismo (Turin: Bollati-Boringhieri, 2003).

20. Anderson, “An invertebrate left.” 

21. Adele Sarno, “Stragi, il ‘papello’ e tangentopoli. 1992, l’anno che cambiò l’Italia,” La Repubblica, Oct. 18, 2011. Marco Berlinguer, “Qualcosa rinascerà ma sarà diverso,” interview with Rossana Rossanda, Nov. 18, 2012.

22. Giorgio Gaber, “Qualcuno era comunista,” 1992; See the video recording here.

23. Daniel Bensaid, “Sur le retour de la question politico-stratégique” Critique communiste, no. 179, March 2006.

24. Gaber, “Qualcuno era comunista.” 

25. Rachel Donadio, “As a Premier Prepares to Depart, the Talk Is of Lost Opportunities,” New York Times, Dec. 14, 2012.

26. La Repubblica, Dec. 14, 2012.

27. A civic mobilization in the Val de Suse, contesting the construction of a line of high-speed train intended to connect Turin to Lyon.

28. The No Muos bring together Sicilian activists fighting against the Mobile user objective system, a satellite communication system of the U.S. Navy. The committees for the defense of the common good emerge from the mobilizations around the referendum of June 12-13, 2011, against nuclear energy, water privatization, and “legitimate obstruction” (which allows government ministers to avoid trial); their startling victory in the referendum has been all but forgotten. 

29. The COBAS (grassroots committees) emerged in the 1980s in various businesses and professional sectors, in response to trade unions federations deemed too conciliatory. Today, the two main forces in labor organization are Confederazione COBAS, primarily based in the public sector since its inception (in particular the teachers’ formation, the “Cobas della Scuola”), and the Unione sindacale di base (USB), formed in May 2010 by the unification of a number of independent unions including Rappresentanze sindacali di base (RdB), the Sindacato dei lavoratori intercategoriali (SdL), and parts of the Confederazione unitaria di base (CUB).

30. Andrea Martini, “18th and 19th October: two special days in the fight back in Italy,” Oct. 27, 2013. 

31. See Andrea d’Urso, Représentativité démocratique et conscience de classe,” Contre Temps, No. 17, April 2013, pp. 111-35; Antonio Moscato, Un nuovo bilancio del movimento di Grillo,” Nov. 3, 2013.

32. Berlinguer, interview with Rossana Rossanda, Nov. 17, 2012. She refers here to l’Uomo qualunque, the movement of Guglielmo Giannini founded in 1944, which led a ferocious campaign against the antifascist parties and politics in general, a receptacle for discontent that would converge later in the Italian Social Movement (MSI).

33. A. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci, edited and translated by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (New York: International Publishers, 1971), p. 272.

34. Pier Paolo Pasolini, Scritti corsari (Milan: Garzanti, 1975), p. 87.

35. Alain Badiou, Le réveil de l’histoire (Paris: Lignes, 2011).

36. Andrea Camilleri, Alla ricerca dell’impegno perduto,” Micromega, No. 6, 2013.

37. Sinistra Critica, New Beginnings.”

38. Sinistra Critica, New Beginnings.”

39. Sinistra Critica, “New Beginnings.” The two organizations coming out of these projects are Sinistra Anticapitalista and Solidarietà Internazionalista.