Europe

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1. See Cinzia Arruzza, “The European Conundrum,” Jacobin, May 2014, www.jacobinmag.com; Stéfanie Prezioso, “The European Elections: Despite the Crisis the Neoliberals Save the Day,” New Politics, newpol.org. Also Jean Batou, “Is 21st Century Fascism Advancing Undercover?” newpol.org.

2. Stuart Hall, “Brave New World,” Marxism Today (October 1988), 24-29.

3. Angelo Tasca, Naissance du fascisme. L’Italie de 1918 à 1922 (Paris: Gallimard, 1938).

4. Frederick Lordon, Jusqu’à quand? Pour en finir avec les crises financières (Paris: Raisons d’agir, 2008).

5. Luciano Gallino, La lotta di classe dopo la lotta di classe. Intervista a cura di Paola Borgna (Bari: Laterza, 2012), 3-4.

6. Ben Stein, “In Class Warfare, Guess Which Class is Winning,” New York Times, November 26, 2006.

7. Jean-Pierre Durand, La Chaîne invisible. Travailler aujourd’hui: flux tendus et servitude volontaire (Paris: Seuil, 2004).

8. This is what François Sabado noted with sadness at the Izquierda Anticapitalista Congress, January 17-18, 2015, see Europe Solidaire here.

9. Stuart Hall, “Thatchers Lessons,” Marxism Today (March 1988), 20-27; Stuart Hall, “Brave New World,” Marxism Today (October 1988), 28.

10. Hall, Thatcher’s Lessons.

11. Lenin, “Letters from Afar. The first Stage of the First Revolution,” March 1, 1917 (published March 20-21, 1917 in the Pravda). Cited in Stuart Hall, “The Great Moving Right Show,” Marxism Today (January 1979), 14. See also Hall, “Brave New World,” 24.

12. Frederic Jameson, “Future City,” New Left Review (vol. 21, May-June 2003), 76.

13. John Armitage, ed., Paul Virilio. From Modernism to Hypermodernism and Beyond (London: Sage, 2000), 48.

14. Eric Zemmour, Le suicide français (Paris: Albin Michel, 2014), 9.

15. Edwy Plenel, “L’idéologie meurtrière d’Eric Zemmour,” Médiapart, January 5, 2015.

16. Michel Houellebecq, Soumission (Paris: Flammarion, 2015); Philippe Val, Malaise dans l’inculture (Paris: Grasset, 2014).

17. Edwy Plenel, “Lettre à la France,” Médiapart, January 20, 2015.

18. Cédric Durand, “Fatigue du capitalisme et résistance sociale,” Contretemps-web, 2010.

19. J. Armitage, ed., Paul Virilio.

20. Guido Caldiron, La destra plurale. Dalla preferenza nazionale alla tolleranza zero (Roma: Manifestolibri, 2001), 9. 

21. Enzo Traverso, “ L’islamophobie est la source du nouveau populisme de droite,” Libération, January 5, 2011.

22. Ernesto Laclau, “Why do empty signifiers matter to politics? (1994),” in David Howarth, ed., Ernesto Laclau. Post-Marxism, populism and critique (London, New York: Routledge, 2015), 167. 

23. Jacques Rancières, “Les idéaux républicains sont devenus des armes de discrimination et de mépris,” L’Obs, April 4, 2015.

24. Luc Boltanski and Arnaud Esquerre, Vers l’extrême droite. Extension des domaines de la droite (Paris: Editions Dehors, 2014), 11, 13.

25. Jean-Baptiste Chastan, “Les centristes remportent les législatives en Finlande,” Le Monde, April 19, 2015.

26. Fabien Escalona, “Sur les ruines de la politique émerge un nouvel ordre electoral,” Médiapart, March 24, 2015.

27. Joël Gombin, “Le FN perce dans de nouveaux territoires,” Le Monde, March 24, 2015.

28. Andrew Byrne, “By-election win marks breakthrough for Hungary’s far-right Jobbik,” Financial Times, April 13, 2015.

29. Jean-Yves Camus, “Du fascisme au national-populisme. Métamorphoses de l’extrême droite en Europe,” Le Monde Diplomatique (May 2002). 

30. Richard Seymour, “Taking on the ‘fruitcakes’: How can we stop UKIP?” Red Pepper, September 7, 2013.

31. Enzo Traverso, “La fabrique de la haine: xénophobie et racisme en Europe,” Contretemps, April 17, 2011 (contretemps.eu); Alberto Burgio, Nonostante Auschwitz. Il “ ritorno” del razzismo in Europ (Roma: Derive Approdi, 2010).

32. Il Fatto quotidiano, April 10, 2015.

33. Guillaume Sibertin-Blanc, “Du simulacre démocratique à la fabulation du peuple: Le populisme minoritaire,” Actuel Marx (vol.2, no. 54, 2013), 71-85.

34. Antonio Gramsci, “‘Wave of Materialism’ and ‘Crisis of Authority’,” in A. Gramsci, Selections from Prison Notebooks (London: ElecBook, 1999), 556.