The Immigrant Rights Movement: Between Political Realism and Social Idealism

by Dan La Botz
  1. For a brief overview of U.S. worker immigration to the U.S. see: Dan La Botz, "Migration of Workers to the United States in Historical Perspective," April, 2006.
  2. U.S. Census Bureau, "The Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2003."
  3. Campbell J. Gibson and Emily Lennon, "Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-born Population of the United States: 1850- 1990," Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census.
  4. U.S. government figures cited in Migration News, Vol. 13, No. 3, July 2006.
  5. Jeffrey S. Passel, "The Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Migrant Population in the U.S.: Estimates Based on the March 2005 Current Population Survey," Pew Hispanic Center, March 7, 2006.
  6. Jeffrey S. Passel, Randolph Capps, and Michael E. Fix, "Undocumented Immigrants: Facts and Figures," Urban Institute, January 12, 2004. This study estimates that there are 9.3 million undocumented immigrants in the U.S. Another later study, Jeffrey S. Passel, "Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Migrant Population in the U.S.: Estimates Based on the March 2005 Current Population Survey," Pew Hispanic Center Report, estimates that there are 11.5 to 12 million undocumented immigrants.
  7. "Nation's Population One-Third Minority," press release, U.S. Census Bureau, May 10, 2006.
  8. Mary Kent and Robert Lalasz, "In the News: Speaking English in the United States," Population Reference Bureau, June 2006.
  9. Carl Haub, "Hispanics Account for Almost One-Half of U.S. Population Growth," Population Reference Bureau, Jan. 2006.
  10. Sandra Yin, "The United States at 300 Million," Population Reference Bureau," Sept. 2006.
  11. The conquered territories with Mexican population were California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. On the experience of the Mexican people after their incorporation in 1847 see: Rodolfo Acuña, Occupied America: A History of Chicanos (New York: Longman, 2000), Chapter 2, "Legacy of Hate: The Conquest of Mexico's Northwest."
  12. Manuel Gamio, Mexican Immigration to the United States: A Study of Human Migration and Adjustment (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1930), 2 vols.; Lawrence A. Cardoso, Mexican Emigration to the United States, 189- 1931: Socio-Economic Patterns (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1980), Most of these immigrants also settled in the Southwest, principally in California and Texas, some went as far as Chicago and Pennsylvania.
  13. Francisco E. Balderrama and Raymond Rodríguez, Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995), passim.
  14. Manuel García y Griego, "The Importation of Mexican Contract Laborers into the United States, 1942-1965," in: David G. Gutíerrez, ed., Between Two Worlds: Mexican Immigrants in the United States (Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1996), 45-85.
  15. Juan Ramón García, Operation Wetback: The Mass Deportation of Mexican Undocumented Workers in 1954 (Westport: Greenwood, 1980), passim.
  16. Juan Gonzalez, Harvest of Empire: A History of Latinos in America (New York: Viking, 2000).
  17. Passel, "Size and Characteristics," p. 1, and Randolph Cappes, Michael E. Fix, Jeffrey S. Passel, Jason Ost, Dan Perez-Lopez, "A Profile of the Low-Wage Immigrant Workforce," Urban Institute, Oct. 27, 2003.
  18. Department of Labor, "National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS)." While immigrants make up only 20% of all farm workers which includes farmers, they make up 78 percent of all wage earning crop workers.
  19. On the new indigenous immigration see: Jonathan Fox and Gaspar Rivera-Salgado, Indigenous Mexican Migrants in the United States (La Jolla, California: UCSD, 2004).
  20. Richard B. Craig, The Bracero Program (Austin: University of Texas, 1971); Ernesto Galarza, Merchants of Labor (Charlotte: McNally & Loftin, Publishers, 1964).
  21. Philip Marin, "Guestworker Programs for the 21st Century," Center for Immigration Studies, April 2000.
  22. U.S. State Department, Report of the Visa Office, for 2006.
  23. "H2A, H2B Programs," Rural Migration News Vol. 14 No. 1, January 2007.
  24. Southern Poverty Law Center, "Close to Slavery."
  25. Juan Gómez Quiñones, Mexican American Labor, 1790-1990, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994). Vargas Zaragosa, Labor Rights Are Civil Rights: Mexican American Workers in Twentieth Century America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.
  26. On workers centers see: Janice Fine, Workers Centers: Organizing at the Edge of the Dream (Ithaca: ILR Press, 2006).
  27. A useful overview of Mexican American political organizations can be found in: Juan Gómez Quiñones, Chicano Politics: Reality and Promise, 1940-1990 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1990).
  28. See the autobiography of the founder: José Angel Gutiérrez, The Making of a Chicano Militant (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998). Immigrants are hardly mentioned.
  29. Bert Corona, Memories of Chicano History: The Life and Narrative of Bert Corona, as told to Mario T. García (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 108-134, quotation from page 112.
  30. Arnoldo García, "Toward a Left without Borders: The Story of the Center for Autonomous Social Action-General Brotherhood of Workers," Monthly Review, July-August 2002, 69-78, quotation from page 72.
  31. U.S. Catholic Bishops Conference, "Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope: A Pastoral Letter Concerning Migration from the Catholic Bishops of Mexico and the United States."
  32. George Raine, "Labor's lukewarm welcome/Unions divided over guest worker programs," San Francisco Chronicle, Wed., May 10, 2006.
  33. See for National May 1st Movement: here and for MAPA see: here, especially the "National Blueprint Summary."