Neoliberalism and the Failure of the Arab Spring

by

1. Samir Amin, Eurocentrism: Modernity, Religion, and Democracy, 2nd ed. (Monthly Review Press, 2009).

2. Hamed El-Said and Jane Harrigan, “Globalization, International Finance, and Political Islam in the Arab World,” Middle East Journal (Vol. 60, No. 3, Summer 2006), 444-466, 448.

3. El-Said and Harrigan.

4. Richard J. Heydarian, How Capitalism Failed the Arab World (London: Zed, 2014), 64.

5. Gilbert Achcar, The People Want: A Radical Exploration of the Arab Uprising (University of California Press, 2013), 11.

6. Heydarian,11.

7. S. A. Sayyid, Fundamental Fear: Eurocentrism and the Emergence of Islamism (London: Zed, 1997).

8. Sheri Berman, “Islamism, Revolution, and Civil Society,” Perspectives on Politics (Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2003), 257-272, 263. 

9. Ha-Joon Chang, “The Market, the State and Institutions in Economic Development,” Rethinking Development Economics (London: Anthem, 2003).

10. Sayyid.

11. Amin, 82.

12. Sayyid.