Paid Family and Medical Leave

by Randy Albelda and Betty Reid Mandell

* Formally known as the Federal Employees Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules Act of 1982. The act does not require agencies to use the recommendations, but in 1994 President Clinton recommended each executive department and agency to establish procedures that encourage the expansion of family-friendly work arrangements.

1. Janet M. Liechty and Elaine A. Anderson, "Flexible workplace policies: Lessons from the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act," Family Relations, 2007, 56:304-17.

2. Ellen Ernst Kossek and Brian Distelberg, "Work and family employment policy for a transformed labor force," in Ann C. Crouter and Alan Booth, Work-Life Policies. (Washington, DC: The Urban institute Press, 2009), p. 22.

3. U. S. Department of Labor, Family and Medical Leave Act.[updated link added Mar. 11, 2016.]

4. In 2009, paid sick days legislation had been proposed in thirteen states -- Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, Maine, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia.. Paid family leave legislation was proposed in six states -- Arizona, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.

5. Julia Weber, "Policy Mini-brief Series," Alfred Sloan Foundation, Boston College, 2009.

6. Randy Albelda and Alan Clayton-Matthews, "Sharing the costs, reaping the benefits: Paid Family and Medical Leave in Massachusetts," Labor Resource Center, U. Mass Boston, June 2006; and New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, March 30, 2009.

7. David Cantor, Jane Waldfogel, Jeffrey Kerwin, Mareena McKinley Wright, Kerry Levis, John Rauch, Tracey Hagerty and Martha Stapleton Kudela. Balancing the needs of families and employers: Family and Medical Leave surveys. (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, January 20, 2001.

8. Robert Drago, "What would they do? Childcare under parental leave and reduced hours options." (University Park, PA: Penn State Population Research Institute), April 2009, p. 21.

9. Ibid., p. 22.

10. Ibid., p. 23.

11. Ann Crittenden, The Price of Motherhood. (New York: Henry Holt & Co.), 2001, pp. 258-259.

12. Rebecca Ray, Janet C. Gornick and John Schmitt, Parental Leave Policies in 21 Countries: Assessing Generosity and Gender Equality, (Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research), September 2008 and Jody Heymann, Hye Jin Rho, John Schmitt, and Alison Earle, Contagion Nation: A Comparison of Paid Sick Day Policies in 22 Countries, Washington DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research, May 2009.

13. Ray, Gornick and Schmitt.

14. Robert Drago, p. 2.

15. Jennifer Glass, "Work-Life Policies," in Ann C. Crouter and Alan Booth, Work-Life Policies. (Washington, DC: The Urban institute Press), 2009, p. 232.

16. Judi Casey and Karen Corday, "Parental leave policies in 21 countries: Assessing generosity and gender equality," An interview with Janet C. Gornick and Rebecca Ray, The Network News, Vol. 11(3), March 2009.

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid.

19. Albelda and Clayton-Matthews, p. v.

20. U.S. Department of Labor, Balancing the Needs of Families and Employees: FMLA Survey Report, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 2000, Table A1-4.4.

21. U.S. Office of Personnel Management, "Paid parental leave," 2001.

22. James T. Bond, Erin Brownfield, Ellen Galinsky, and Stacy S. Kim, "The National Study of Employers," 2005.

23. Kossek and Distelberg, p. 34.

24. The exact percentages are: 22 percent for maternity leave; 29 percent for paternity leave; 22 percent for adoption or foster care leave; and 21 percent to care for a child with a serious illness.

25. Bond, et. al., p. 25.

26. U.S. Department of Labor, Family and Medical Leave Act Regulations: A report on the Department of Labor's Request for information -- 2007 Update (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor), 2007.

27. Albelda and Clayton-Matthews, p. 3.

28. Kossek and Distelberg, p. 14.

29. Sunhwa Lee, "Women's work supports, job retention and job mobility: Child care and employer provided health insurance help women stay on jobs." Washington, DC: Institute for Women's Policy Research, 2004; Colleen Henry, Misha Werschkul, and Minita Rao, "Child care subsidies promote mothers' employment and children's development." Washington DC: Institute for Women's Policy Research, 2003.

30. Elisa K. Pavalka and Karhryn A. Henderson, "Combining care work and paid work: Do workplace policies make a difference?" Research on aging 28: 359-79, 2006.

31. Makiko Fuwa and Philip N. Cohen, "Housework and social policy," Social Science Research 36 (2): 512-30, 2007.

32. Jane Waldfogel, "Understanding the 'Family Gap' in pay for women with children," Journal of EconomicPerspectives 12, no. 1 (1998), 137-156.

33. Lorraine Tulman and Jacqueline Fawcett, "Maternal employment following childbirth," Research in Nursing and health 13: 181-188, 1990.

34. Roseanne Clark, Janet Shibley, Marilyn Essex, and Marjorie Klein, "Length of maternity leave and quality of mother-infant interactions," Child Development 68 (2):364-383, 1997.

35. Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Wen-Jui Han, and Jane Waldfogel. "Maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes in the first three years of life: The NICHD study of early child care." Child Development 73 (4): 1052-73, 2002.

36. Charles L. Baum, "Does early maternal employment harm child development? Analysis of the potential benefits of leave taking." Journal of Labor Economics 21(2):409-448, 2003.

37. Christopher Ruhm, "Parental leave and child health," Journal of Health Economics (19(6): 931-960, 2000.

38. See here.

39. Albelda and Clayton-Matthews, pp. v-vi.

40. Ibid., p. 16.

41. Kris Maher, "Is family leave act too soft or too tough?" Wall Street Journal Abstracts, November 21, 2007, D1.

42. Judy Greenwald, "Appeals court rules twice for employers with 'honest suspicion' of workers on leave," Business Insurance, September 1, 2008, p. 28.

43. Ibid.

44. Judy Greenwald, "Firms use private eyes to track FMLA abuse; Experts urge caution as privacy concerns rise," Business Insurance, September 1, 2008.

45. Ibid.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Susanna Schrobsdorff, "Family Leave under fire?" Newsweek, March 26, 2007, p. 8.

49. Hsin-Yin Lee, "Poll finds most seek reform of family, medical leave law," The Washington Times, March 9, 2008, p. A04.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid.

52. Lily Garcia, "When your supervisor wants a doctor's note every time," The Washington Post, December 28, 2008, p. K01.

53. Mark Schoeff Jr., "Opponents of FMLA changes seek redress," Workforce Management, December 15, 2008.

54. Ibid.

55. Lily Garcia, "When your supervisor wants a doctor's note every time," Washington Post, December 28, 2008.

56. Ibid.

57. Sue Shellenbarger, "Family time: Lawmakers push to expand paid leave," Wall Street Journal Abstracts, November 19, 2008, p. D1.

58. Ibid.

59. See here.

60. Katharine Mieszkowski, June 5, 2009.

61. American Chronicle, "Stark introduces Paid Family Leave legislation," March 28, 2009.

62. Eve Tahminciogler, "Paid Family Leave becomes hot workplace issue,", June 3, 2008.

63. National Partnership for Women and Families.

64. Chai R. Feldblum, "Policy challenges and opportunities for workplace flexibility," in Crouter and Booth, p. 256.

65. Heather Boushey, "Helping breadwinners when it can't wait," Center for American Progress, June 8, 2009.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. Ellen Bravo, "Letter to the Editor," New York Times, February 13, 2009.