Revolutionary Challenges in Tunisia and Egypt: Generations in Conflict

by Stuart Schaar

1. For the complete poem see Marvin Gettleman and Stuart Schaar (eds.), The Middle East and Islamic World Reader (New York: Grove Press, 2OO3), pp. 194-198.

2. See David Faris, "The digital Roots of the Revolution," meta-activism project, February 11, 2011: " a catalyst for what happened on January 25th [in Egypt], social media were not just ancillary but critical." See Stuart Schaar,"Arab Dictatorship under Fire in the New Information Age," Economic & Political Review (Mumbai, India), Vol. XLVI No 6, February 5, 2011, 12-15 posted on Gertrude Ezorsky's blog, New Politics, February 7, 2011.

3. Fatema Mernissi has been tracking these trends in Morocco for the entire Arab world.

4. See Gene Sharp, From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework for Liberation (Boston: The Albert Einstein Institution, 4th ed. 2010). See also Michael True, "Gene Sharp: Scholar of Strategic Nonviolence," Peacework Magazine (May 2005); Samuel P. Jacobs, "Gene Sharp, The 83 Year Old Who Toppled Egypt," The Daily Beast (February 14, 2011); Sheryl Gay Stolberg, "Shy U.S. Intellectual Created Playbook Used in a Revolution," The New York Times, February 17, 2011 and Stephen Zunes, "Attacks on Gene Sharp and Albert Einstein Institution Unwarranted," Foreign Policy in Focus, June 27, 2008.

5. David D. Kirkpatrick and David E. Sanger, "A Tunisian-Egyptian Link That Shook Arab History," The New York Times, February 13, 2011.

6. Al-Jazeera English in the series People and Power had an important film on the subject in February 2011, summarizing these events.

7. See the astute article by David Faris, "Revolutions Without Revolutionaries? Network Theory, Facebook, and the Egyptian Blogsphere," Arab Media & Society (September 2008), 1-11 describing organizing through Facebook of the April 6, 2008 strike. I'd like to thank Professor Todd Gitlin of Columbia University for bringing this article to my attention.

8. Marwane Ben Yahmed, "Béji Caid Essebsi [interview]," Jeune Afrique, No. 2621, 3-9 avril, 2011, 58-63.