The Rise and Fall of the Muckrakers

by

1. In 1953, an elected reform government in Guatemala nationalized unused land owned by the United Fruit Company. Virtually every government official was involved with that corporation, from director of the CIA to secretary of state (the Dulles brothers), among others. The U.S. armed an invasion, which overthrew the government and imposed a dictatorship. [Jerry Kloby, Inequality, Power, and Development (Humanity Books, 2004), 125-126; Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman, The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism (South End Press, 1979), 276-279.]  

2. C. Wright Mills, The Power Elite (Oxford, 1956).

3. James Aronson, The Press and the Cold War (Monthly Review Press, 1970), 12.

4. Robert E. Spiller et al, Literary History of the United States v.II (MacMillan Co., 1948), 976-977.

5. Alfred Kazin, On Native Grounds (Doubleday & Co., 1942), 21.

6. Spiller, 989.

7. Merle Curti, The Growth of American Thought 2nd ed. (Harper & Brothers, 1951), 628.

8. Walter M. Brasch, Forerunners of Revolution: Muckrakers and the American Social Conscience (University Press of America, 1990), 28.

9. Brasch, 112.

10. Princeton Alumni Weekly, Sept. 23, 2009.

11. Curti, 621.

12. Brasch, 3.

13. Quoted in Brasch, 98

14. The Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens (Grosset & Dunlap, 1931), 357.

15. These reports are reproduced as Part III of The Autobiography.

16. Kazin, 81.

17. Steffens, 375.

18. Spiller, 996.

19. Spiller, 997.

20. In brothels of the time, the customer purchased a token from the manager and gave it to the sex worker of his choice, who at the end of a shift would cash in the tokens, or “checks.”

21. Brasch, 57.

22. In 1904 Collier’s Weekly discovered that Lydia Pinkham, whose “tonic” was bought by millions of women, and who answered letters providing “professional advice,” had been dead for 23 years.

23. Kazin, 82.

24. Quoted in Brasch, 15, 77.

25. Kazin, 83.

26. The Jungle (Signet Classics ed., 2015), 353.

27. Spiller, 1203.

28. The Iron Heel (Grayson Pub. Co. ed., 1948), 6. Reprint of the original ed. of 1907.

29. Kazin, 84-85.

30. Spiller, 1109.

31. Spiller, 1111.

32. Spiller, 1125.

33. The Brass Check, 229-230.

34. Brasch, 123.

35. David A. Shannon, The Socialist Party of America (Macmillan, 1955), 110.

36. Lyle Stuart, 1968.

37. Kazin, 295.

38. See Christopher Haas, “Muckraking and Troublemaking,” in its 40th Anniversary edition, Nov. 2016.