The Rise of the Servant Society


1. See the important analysis by Aldo Barba and Giancarlo de Vivo, “An ‘Unproductive Labor’ View of Finance,” Cambridge Journal of Economics (No. 36, 2012), 1479-1496.

2. The twin concepts of “oligarchic wealth” and “democratic wealth” were first introduced by Roy Harrod in “The Possibility of Economic Satiety: Use of Economic Growth for Improving the Quality of Education and Leisure,” Problems of United States Economic Development (Committee for Economic Development, 1958), 207-213. They are further discussed by Fred Hirsch, The Social Limits to Growth. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976) as well in Michael J. Thompson, “The Limits to Liberalism: A Republican Theory of Social Justice,” International Journal of Ethics (vol. 7, no. 3-4, 2011), 1-27. Harrod and Hirsch do not develop the concept with any sophistication, and my use of it here and elsewhere is my own development. 

3. Aristotle, Politics, IV, 11.

4. Frederick Solt, “The Social Origins of Authoritarianism,” Political Research Quarterly (vol. 65 no. 4, 2012), 703-713, 706.