Sabaneta to Miraflores: Afterlives of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela


1. Sujatha Fernandes, Who Can Stop the Drums? Urban Social Movements in Chávez’s Venezuela, Durham: Duke University Press, 2010, pp. 13-15.

2. Jacobo Rivera, “Lo irreversible y Hugo Chávez,”  La Jornada, Mar. 10, 2013.

3. George Ciccariello-Maher, “Preparing for a Post-Chávez Venezuela,” Counterpunch, Mar. 6, 2013.

4. “Cronología de la última batalla del líder venezolano,” La Jornada, Mar. 5, 2013.

5. Luis Hernández Navarro, “Hugo Chávez, el niño pobre de Sabaneta,” La Jornada, Mar. 8, 2013.

6. For insightful accounts of Chávez’s life and the socio-historical settings that helped to shape it, see Richard Gott, Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution, second edition, 2011, London: Verso; and Bart Jones, Hugo! The Hugo Chávez Story, from Mud Hut to Perpetual Revolution, 2008, London: The Bodley Head.

7. Richard Gott, Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian Revolution, London and New York: Verso, 2005, p. X.

8. Pablo Stefanoni draws attention to the role of Norberto Ceresole in “Pintando Venezuela de ‘rojo-rojito’,”, Mar. 10, 2013.

9. Greg Grandin, “The Rebel and Mr. Danger: Is Bush’s Nightmare Venezuela’s Salvation?” Boston Review, May-June, 2006.

10. James Suggett, “Venezuela Says Clinton’s Remarks Reflect ‘Profound Lack of Knowledge of Our Reality’,” Venezuelanalysis, July 9, 2009.

11. Keith Johnson, “Obama Reacts to Chávez Death,” Wall Street Journal, Mar. 5, 2013.

12. Mike Blanchfield, “Venezuela Slams Harper for ‘blunt, insensitive, impertinent’ Remarks on Hugo Chávez’s Death,” National Post, Mar. 7, 2013.

13. All quotations of Rory Carroll are taken from, “In the End, an Awful Manager,” New York Times, Mar. 5, 2013.

14. John Paul Rathbone and Benedict Mander, “Chávez Wins New Term in Venezuela,” Financial Times, Oct. 8, 2012.

15. Carroll, “In the End, an Awful Manager.”

16. Arturo Cano, “Convocar a elecciones, clave para estabilidad en Venezuela,” La Jornada, Mar. 7, 2013.

17. Mark Weisbrot, “Why the U.S. Demonises Venezuela’s Democracy,” Guardian, Oct. 3, 2012.

18. Carter quote and figures for the black credit card plan from Greg Grandin, “On the Legacy of Hugo Chávez,” The Nation, Mar. 5, 2013.

19. Mike Davis, “Fear and Money in Dubai,” New Left Review, II, 41 (Sept.-Oct.), 2006; Adam Hanieh, Capital and Class in the Gulf Arab States, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

20. Mark Weisbrot and Jake Johnston, Venezuela’s Economic Recovery: Is it Sustainable? Washington, D.C.: Center for Economic and Policy Research, Sept. 2012, pp. 7, 10; EIU, Venezuela: Country Report, London: Economist Intelligence Unit, Mar. 2013, p. 8.

21. The missions are discussed in Gregory Wilpert, Changing Venezuela By Taking Power: The History and Policies of the Chávez Government, London: Verso, 2006; and Iain Bruce, The Real Venezuela, London: Pluto, 2009.

22. Weisbrot and Johnston, Venezuela’s Economic Recovery, p. 26.

23. Claudio Katz, “Nuestro Chávez,” Rebelión, Mar. 9, 2013.

24. Guillermo Almeyra, “Los esfuerzos integracionistas del poschavismo,” La Jornada, Mar. 10, 2013.

25. Alfredo Serrano Mancilla, “Los próximos días en Venezuela,” Rebelión, Mar. 10, 2013.

26. Ángel Guerra Cabrera, “Venezuela: que la victoria no nuble el análisis,” La Jornada, Mar. 10, 2013; Guillermo Almeyra, “Venezuela ante las próximas elecciones presidenciales,” La Jornada, Mar. 10, 2013.

27. Daniel Hellinger, “Political Overview: The Breakdown of Puntofijismo and the Rise of Chavismo,” in Venezuelan Politics in the Chávez Era: Class Polarization and Conflict, Steve Ellner and Daniel Hellinger, eds., Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, p. 41.

28. Mark Weisbrot and Luis Sandoval. 2007. The Venezuelan Economy in the Chávez Years. Washington, D.C.: Center for Economic and Policy Research, 2007, p. 5. 

29. Roberts, Kenneth. 2003. “Social Polarization and the Populist Resurgence in Venezuela.” In Venezuelan Politics in the Chávez Era: Class Polarization and Conflict, Steve Ellner and Daniel Hellinger, eds., Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003, p. 57.

30. Cited in Chris Carlson, Oil or Class Structure? Underdevelopment and Oil Dependence in Venezuela, MA Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2012, p. 1.

31. Weisbrot and Sandoval, 2007, p. 4.

32. ECLAC, Social Panorama of Latin America, Santiago: United Nations, 2002, p. 283.

33. Fernando Coronil, The Magical State: Nature, Money and Modernity in Venezuela, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

34. Jeffery R. Webber, “Venezuela under Chávez: The Prospects and Limitations of Twenty-First Century Socialism, 1999-2009,” Socialist Studies, 6(1) Spring 2010, p. 19.

35. Personal Interview, Caracas, Aug. 12, 2012.

36. George Ciccariello-Maher, “The Fourth World War Started in Venezuela,” Counterpunch, Mar. 5, 2007.

37. Hellinger, 2003, p. 41.

38. Chávez also did graduate studies in Political Science at the Simón Bolívar University in Caracas, but he did not obtain a degree.

39. Marta Harnecker, Understanding the Venezuelan Revolution: Hugo Chavez talks to Marta Harnecker, New York: Monthly Review Press, 2005.

40. Lesley Gates, Electing Chavez: The Business of Anti-neoliberal Politics in Venezuela, Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press, 2010.

41. See, for example, accounts by Greg Wilpert, “Venezuela: An Electoral Road to Twenty-First Century Socialism,” in The New Latin American Left: Cracks in the Empire, Jeffery R. Webber and Barry Carr, eds., Lanham, MD: Roman and Littlefield Publishers, pp. 191-212  and George Ciccariello-Maher, We Created Chavez: A People’s History of the Venezuelan Revolution, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2013.

42. Miguel Tinker-Salas, “Fueling Concern,” Harvard International Review, Vol. 26, Issue 4, pp. 50-54.

43. Michael Tanzer, “Towards Correctly Measuring the Role of the Oil Sector in Economic Growth,” Venezuela Analysis, Dec. 16, 2009.

44. In a fortuitous turn of events, Irish filmmakers Kim Bartley and Donnacha Ó Briain, who happened to be in Caracas making a documentary about something else, caught the whole thing on tape, resulting in their award-winning film, The Revolution Will Not be Televised. The film includes footage from inside the presidential palace during the days of the coup.

45. Camila Piñeiro Harnecker, “Workplace Democracy and Social Consciousness: A Study of Venezuelan Cooperatives,” Science & Society, Vol. 73, No. 3, July 2009, p. 309.

46. Cleto A. Sojo, “Venezuela’s Chavez Closes World Social Forum with Call to Transcend Capitalism,” Venezuela Analysis, Jan. 30, 2005.

47. Roberto Montoya, “La Venezuela que deja Chávez,” Viento Sur, Mar. 8, 2012.

48. Juan Manuel Karg, “Nicolás Maduro, del Metro de Caracas a Miraflores,” Rebelión, December 25, 2012; Arturo Cano, “Convocar a elecciones, clave para estabilidad en Venezuela,” La Jornada, Mar. 7, 2013.

49. Guillermo Almeyra, “Chávez presidente,  ¿y  después?” La Jornada, Oct. 7, 2010.

50. Personal interview, Caracas, Aug. 8, 2012.

51. Personal Interview, Caracas, Aug. 7, 2012.

52. Charlie Post, “Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy,” in Gilbert Achcar, ed., The Legacy of Ernest Mandel, London: Verso, 1999.

53. Personal interview, Caracas, Aug. 10, 2012.